Spend Client

Spend CLI

spendcli is the tool that enables you to interact with the node that runs on the Spend Hub network, whether you run it yourself or not. Let us set it up properly. In order to install it, follow the installation procedure.

Setting up spendcli

The main command used to set up spendcli is the following:

spendcli config <flag> <value>

It allows you to set a default value for each given flag.

First, set up the address of the full-node you want to connect to:

spendcli config node <host>:<port

# example: spendcli config node https://77.87.106.33:26657

If you run your own full-node, just use tcp://localhost:26657 as the address.

Then, let us set the default value of the --trust-node flag:

spendcli config trust-node true

# Set to true if you trust the full-node you are connecting to, false otherwise

Finally, let us set the chain-id of the blockchain we want to interact with:

spendcli config chain-id cosmoshub-2

Keys

Key Types

There are three types of key representations that are used:

  • cosmos
  • Derived from account keys generated by spendcli keys add
  • Used to receive funds
  • e.g. cosmos15h6vd5f0wqps26zjlwrc6chah08ryu4hzzdwhc

  • cosmosvaloper

  • Used to associate a validator to it's operator
  • Used to invoke staking commands
  • e.g. cosmosvaloper1carzvgq3e6y3z5kz5y6gxp3wpy3qdrv928vyah

  • cosmospub

  • Derived from account keys generated by spendcli keys add
  • e.g. cosmospub1zcjduc3q7fu03jnlu2xpl75s2nkt7krm6grh4cc5aqth73v0zwmea25wj2hsqhlqzm
  • cosmosvalconspub
  • Generated when the node is created with spend init.
  • Get this value with spend tendermint show-validator
  • e.g. cosmosvalconspub1zcjduepq0ms2738680y72v44tfyqm3c9ppduku8fs6sr73fx7m666sjztznqzp2emf

Generate Keys

You'll need an account private and public key pair (a.k.a. sk, pk respectively) to be able to receive funds, send txs, bond tx, etc.

To generate a new secp256k1 key:

spendcli keys add <account_name>

Next, you will have to create a passphrase to protect the key on disk. The output of the above command will contain a seed phrase. It is recommended to save the seed phrase in a safe place so that in case you forget the password, you could eventually regenerate the key from the seed phrase with the following command:

spendcli keys add --recover

If you check your private keys, you'll now see <account_name>:

spendcli keys show <account_name>

View the validator operator's address via:

spendcli keys show <account_name> --bech=val

You can see all your available keys by typing:

spendcli keys list

View the validator pubkey for your node by typing:

spend tendermint show-validator

Note that this is the Tendermint signing key, not the operator key you will use in delegation transactions.

::: danger Warning We strongly recommend NOT using the same passphrase for multiple keys. The Tendermint team and the Interchain Foundation will not be responsible for the loss of funds. :::

Generate Multisig Public Keys

You can generate and print a multisig public key by typing:

spendcli keys add --multisig=name1,name2,name3[...] --multisig-threshold=K new_key_name

K is the minimum number of private keys that must have signed the transactions that carry the public key's address as signer.

The --multisig flag must contain the name of public keys that will be combined into a public key that will be generated and stored as new_key_name in the local database. All names supplied through --multisig must already exist in the local database. Unless the flag --nosort is set, the order in which the keys are supplied on the command line does not matter, i.e. the following commands generate two identical keys:

spendcli keys add --multisig=foo,bar,baz --multisig-threshold=2 multisig_address
spendcli keys add --multisig=baz,foo,bar --multisig-threshold=2 multisig_address

Multisig addresses can also be generated on-the-fly and printed through the which command:

spendcli keys show --multisig-threshold K name1 name2 name3 [...]

For more information regarding how to generate, sign and broadcast transactions with a multi signature account see Multisig Transactions.

Tx Broadcasting

When broadcasting transactions, spendcli accepts a --broadcast-mode flag. This flag can have a value of sync (default), async, or block, where sync makes the client return a CheckTx response, async makes the client return immediately, and block makes the client wait for the tx to be committed (or timing out).

It is important to note that the block mode should not be used in most circumstances. This is because broadcasting can timeout but the tx may still be included in a block. This can result in many undesirable situations. Therefor, it is best to use sync or async and query by tx hash to determine when the tx is included in a block.

Fees & Gas

Each transaction may either supply fees or gas prices, but not both.

Validator's have a minimum gas price (multi-denom) configuration and they use this value when when determining if they should include the transaction in a block during CheckTx, where gasPrices >= minGasPrices. Note, your transaction must supply fees that are greater than or equal to any of the denominations the validator requires.

Note: With such a mechanism in place, validators may start to prioritize txs by gasPrice in the mempool, so providing higher fees or gas prices may yield higher tx priority.

e.g.

spendcli tx send ... --fees=50000ustaking

or

spendcli tx send ... --gas-prices=0.025ustaking

Account

Get Tokens

The best way to get tokens is from the Spend Testnet Faucet. If the faucet is not working for you, try asking #cosmos-validators. The faucet needs the cosmos from the account you wish to use for staking.

Query Account Balance

After receiving tokens to your address, you can view your account's balance by typing:

spendcli query account <account_cosmos>

::: warning Note When you query an account balance with zero tokens, you will get this error: No account with address <account_cosmos> was found in the state. This can also happen if you fund the account before your node has fully synced with the chain. These are both normal.

:::

Send Tokens

The following command could be used to send coins from one account to another:

spendcli tx send <sender_key_name_or_address> <recipient_address> 10faucetToken \
  --chain-id=<chain_id>

::: warning Note The amount argument accepts the format <value|coin_name>. :::

::: tip Note You may want to cap the maximum gas that can be consumed by the transaction via the --gas flag. If you pass --gas=auto, the gas supply will be automatically estimated before executing the transaction. Gas estimate might be inaccurate as state changes could occur in between the end of the simulation and the actual execution of a transaction, thus an adjustment is applied on top of the original estimate in order to ensure the transaction is broadcasted successfully. The adjustment can be controlled via the --gas-adjustment flag, whose default value is 1.0. :::

Now, view the updated balances of the origin and destination accounts:

spendcli query account <account_cosmos>
spendcli query account <destination_cosmos>

You can also check your balance at a given block by using the --block flag:

spendcli query account <account_cosmos> --block=<block_height>

You can simulate a transaction without actually broadcasting it by appending the --dry-run flag to the command line:

spendcli tx send <sender_key_name_or_address> <destination_cosmosaccaddr> 10faucetToken \
  --chain-id=<chain_id> \
  --dry-run

Furthermore, you can build a transaction and print its JSON format to STDOUT by appending --generate-only to the list of the command line arguments:

spendcli tx send <sender_address> <recipient_address> 10faucetToken \
  --chain-id=<chain_id> \
  --generate-only > unsignedSendTx.json
spendcli tx sign \
  --chain-id=<chain_id> \
  --from=<key_name> \
  unsignedSendTx.json > signedSendTx.json

::: tip Note The --generate-only flag prevents spendcli from accessing the local keybase. Thus when such flag is supplied <sender_key_name_or_address> must be an address. :::

You can validate the transaction's signatures by typing the following:

spendcli tx sign --validate-signatures signedSendTx.json

You can broadcast the signed transaction to a node by providing the JSON file to the following command:

spendcli tx broadcast --node=<node> signedSendTx.json

Query Transactions

Matching a Set of Tags

You can use the transaction search command to query for transactions that match a specific set of tags, which are added on every transaction.

Each tag is conformed by a key-value pair in the form of <tag>:<value>. Tags can also be combined to query for a more specific result using the & symbol.

The command for querying transactions using a tag is the following:

spendcli query txs --tags='<tag>:<value>'

And for using multiple tags:

spendcli query txs --tags='<tag1>:<value1>&<tag2>:<value2>'

The pagination is supported as well via page and limit:

spendcli query txs --tags='<tag>:<value>' --page=1 --limit=20

::: tip Note

The action tag always equals the message type returned by the Type() function of the relevant message.

You can find a list of available tags on each of the SDK modules:

Matching a Transaction's Hash

You can also query a single transaction by its hash using the following command:

spendcli query tx [hash]

Slashing

Unjailing

To unjail your jailed validator

spendcli tx slashing unjail --from <validator-operator-addr>

Signing Info

To retrieve a validator's signing info:

spendcli query slashing signing-info <validator-pubkey>

Query Parameters

You can get the current slashing parameters via:

spendcli query slashing params

Minting

You can query for the minting/inflation parameters via:

spendcli query minting params

To query for the current inflation value:

spendcli query minting inflation

To query for the current annual provisions value:

spendcli query minting annual-provisions

Staking

Set up a Validator

Please refer to the Validator Setup section for a more complete guide on how to set up a validator-candidate.

Delegate to a Validator

On the upcoming testnet, you can delegate staking to a validator. These delegators can receive part of the validator's fee revenue. Read more about the Spend Token Model.

Query Validators

You can query the list of all validators of a specific chain:

spendcli query staking validators

If you want to get the information of a single validator you can check it with:

spendcli query staking validator <account_cosmosval>

Bond Tokens

On the Spend Hub testnet, we delegate ustaking, where 1staking = 1000000ustaking. Here's how you can bond tokens to a testnet validator (i.e. delegate):

spendcli tx staking delegate \
  --amount=10000000ustaking \
  --validator=<validator> \
  --from=<key_name> \
  --chain-id=<chain_id>

<validator> is the operator address of the validator to which you intend to delegate. If you are running a local testnet, you can find this with:

spendcli keys show [name] --bech val

where [name] is the name of the key you specified when you initialized spend.

While tokens are bonded, they are pooled with all the other bonded tokens in the network. Validators and delegators obtain a percentage of shares that equal their stake in this pool.

Query Delegations

Once submitted a delegation to a validator, you can see it's information by using the following command:

spendcli query staking delegation <delegator_addr> <validator_addr>

Or if you want to check all your current delegations with disctinct validators:

spendcli query staking delegations <delegator_addr>

Unbond Tokens

If for any reason the validator misbehaves, or you just want to unbond a certain amount of tokens, use this following command.

spendcli tx staking unbond \
  <validator_addr> \
  10staking \
  --from=<key_name> \
  --chain-id=<chain_id>

The unbonding will be automatically completed when the unbonding period has passed.

Query Unbonding-Delegations

Once you begin an unbonding-delegation, you can see it's information by using the following command:

spendcli query staking unbonding-delegation <delegator_addr> <validator_addr>

Or if you want to check all your current unbonding-delegations with disctinct validators:

spendcli query staking unbonding-delegations <account_cosmos>

Additionally, as you can get all the unbonding-delegations from a particular validator:

spendcli query staking unbonding-delegations-from <account_cosmosval>

Redelegate Tokens

A redelegation is a type delegation that allows you to bond illiquid tokens from one validator to another:

spendcli tx staking redelegate \
  <src-validator-operator-addr> \
  <dst-validator-operator-addr> \
  10staking \
  --from=<key_name> \
  --chain-id=<chain_id>

Here you can also redelegate a specific shares-amount or a shares-fraction with the corresponding flags.

The redelegation will be automatically completed when the unbonding period has passed.

Query Redelegations

Once you begin an redelegation, you can see it's information by using the following command:

spendcli query staking redelegation <delegator_addr> <src_val_addr> <dst_val_addr>

Or if you want to check all your current unbonding-delegations with distinct validators:

spendcli query staking redelegations <account_cosmos>

Additionally, as you can get all the outgoing redelegations from a particular validator:

  spendcli query staking redelegations-from <account_cosmosval>

Query Parameters

Parameters define high level settings for staking. You can get the current values by using:

spendcli query staking params

With the above command you will get the values for:

  • Unbonding time
  • Maximum numbers of validators
  • Coin denomination for staking

All these values will be subject to updates though a governance process by ParameterChange proposals.

Query Pool

A staking Pool defines the dynamic parameters of the current state. You can query them with the following command:

spendcli query staking pool

With the pool command you will get the values for:

  • Not-bonded and bonded tokens
  • Token supply
  • Current annual inflation and the block in which the last inflation was processed
  • Last recorded bonded shares
Query Delegations To Validator

You can also query all of the delegations to a particular validator:

  spendcli query delegations-to <account_cosmosval>

Governance

Governance is the process from which users in the Spend Hub can come to consensus on software upgrades, parameters of the testnet or signaling mechanisms through text proposals. This is done through voting on proposals, which will be submitted by STAKING holders on the testnet.

Some considerations about the voting process:

  • Voting is done by bonded STAKING holders on a 1 bonded STAKING 1 vote basis
  • Delegators inherit the vote of their validator if they don't vote
  • Votes are tallied at the end of the voting period (2 weeks on testnet) where each address can vote multiple times to update its Option value (paying the transaction fee each time), only the most recently cast vote will count as valid
  • Voters can choose between options Yes, No, NoWithVeto and Abstain
  • At the end of the voting period, a proposal is accepted iff:
  • (YesVotes / (YesVotes+NoVotes+NoWithVetoVotes)) > 1/2
  • (NoWithVetoVotes / (YesVotes+NoVotes+NoWithVetoVotes)) < 1/3
  • ((YesVotes+NoVotes+NoWithVetoVotes) / totalBondedStake) >= quorum

For more information about the governance process and how it works, please check out the Governance module specification.

Create a Governance Proposal

In order to create a governance proposal, you must submit an initial deposit along with a title and description. Various modules outside of governance may implement their own proposal types and handlers (eg. parameter changes), where the governance module itself supports Text proposals. Any module outside of governance has it's command mounted on top of submit-proposal.

To submit a Text proposal:

spendcli tx gov submit-proposal \
  --title=<title> \
  --description=<description> \
  --type="Text" \
  --deposit="1000000ustaking" \
  --from=<name> \
  --chain-id=<chain_id>

You may also provide the proposal directly through the --proposal flag which points to a JSON file containing the proposal.

To submit a parameter change proposal, you must provide a proposal file as its contents are less friendly to CLI input:

spendcli tx gov submit-proposal param-change <path/to/proposal.json> \
  --from=<name> \
  --chain-id=<chain_id>

Where proposal.json contains the following:

{
  "title": "Param Change",
  "description": "Update max validators",
  "changes": [
    {
      "subspace": "staking",
      "key": "MaxValidators",
      "value": 105
    }
  ],
  "deposit": [
    {
      "denom": "stake",
      "amount": "10000000"
    }
  ]
}

::: danger Warning

Currently parameter changes are evaluated but not validated, so it is very important that any value change is valid (ie. correct type and within bounds) for its respective parameter, eg. MaxValidators should be an integer and not a decimal.

Proper vetting of a parameter change proposal should prevent this from happening (no deposits should occur during the governance process), but it should be noted regardless.

:::

::: tip Note

The SoftwareUpgrade is currently not supported as it's not implemented and currently does not differ from the semantics of a Text proposal.

:::

Query Proposals

Once created, you can now query information of the proposal:

spendcli query gov proposal <proposal_id>

Or query all available proposals:

spendcli query gov proposals

You can also query proposals filtered by voter or depositor by using the corresponding flags.

To query for the proposer of a given governance proposal:

spendcli query gov proposer <proposal_id>

Increase Deposit

In order for a proposal to be broadcasted to the network, the amount deposited must be above a minDeposit value (initial value: 512000000ustaking). If the proposal you previously created didn't meet this requirement, you can still increase the total amount deposited to activate it. Once the minimum deposit is reached, the proposal enters voting period:

spendcli tx gov deposit <proposal_id> "10000000ustaking" \
  --from=<name> \
  --chain-id=<chain_id>

NOTE: Proposals that don't meet this requirement will be deleted after MaxDepositPeriod is reached.

Query Deposits

Once a new proposal is created, you can query all the deposits submitted to it:

spendcli query gov deposits <proposal_id>

You can also query a deposit submitted by a specific address:

spendcli query gov deposit <proposal_id> <depositor_address>

Vote on a Proposal

After a proposal's deposit reaches the MinDeposit value, the voting period opens. Bonded Stakings holders can then cast vote on it:

spendcli tx gov vote <proposal_id> <Yes/No/NoWithVeto/Abstain> \
  --from=<name> \
  --chain-id=<chain_id>
Query Votes

Check the vote with the option you just submitted:

spendcli query gov vote <proposal_id> <voter_address>

You can also get all the previous votes submitted to the proposal with:

spendcli query gov votes <proposal_id>

Query proposal tally results

To check the current tally of a given proposal you can use the tally command:

spendcli query gov tally <proposal_id>

Query Governance Parameters

To check the current governance parameters run:

spendcli query gov params

To query subsets of the governance parameters run:

spendcli query gov param voting
spendcli query gov param tallying
spendcli query gov param deposit

Fee Distribution

Query Distribution Parameters

To check the current distribution parameters, run:

spendcli query distr params

Query distribution Community Pool

To query all coins in the community pool which is under Governance control:

spendcli query distr community-pool

Query outstanding rewards

To check the current outstanding (un-withdrawn) rewards, run:

spendcli query distr outstanding-rewards

Query Validator Commission

To check the current outstanding commission for a validator, run:

spendcli query distr commission <validator_address>

Query Validator Slashes

To check historical slashes for a validator, run:

spendcli query distr slashes <validator_address> <start_height> <end_height>

Query Delegator Rewards

To check current rewards for a delegation (were they to be withdrawn), run:

spendcli query distr rewards <delegator_address> <validator_address>

Query All Delegator Rewards

To check all current rewards for a delegation (were they to be withdrawn), run:

spendcli query distr rewards <delegator_address>

Multisig Transactions

Multisig transactions require signatures of multiple private keys. Thus, generating and signing a transaction from a multisig account involve cooperation among the parties involved. A multisig transaction can be initiated by any of the key holders, and at least one of them would need to import other parties' public keys into their Keybase and generate a multisig public key in order to finalize and broadcast the transaction.

For example, given a multisig key comprising the keys p1, p2, and p3, each of which is held by a distinct party, the user holding p1 would require to import both p2 and p3 in order to generate the multisig account public key:

spendcli keys add \
  p2 \
  --pubkey=cosmospub1addwnpepqtd28uwa0yxtwal5223qqr5aqf5y57tc7kk7z8qd4zplrdlk5ez5kdnlrj4

spendcli keys add \
  p3 \
  --pubkey=cosmospub1addwnpepqgj04jpm9wrdml5qnss9kjxkmxzywuklnkj0g3a3f8l5wx9z4ennz84ym5t

spendcli keys add \
  p1p2p3 \
  --multisig-threshold=2 \
  --multisig=p1,p2,p3

A new multisig public key p1p2p3 has been stored, and its address will be used as signer of multisig transactions:

spendcli keys show --address p1p2p3

You may also view multisig threshold, pubkey constituents and respective weights by viewing the JSON output of the key or passing the --show-multisig flag:

spendcli keys show p1p2p3 -o json

spendcli keys show p1p2p3 --show-multisig

The first step to create a multisig transaction is to initiate it on behalf of the multisig address created above:

spendcli tx send cosmos1570v2fq3twt0f0x02vhxpuzc9jc4yl30q2qned 1000000ustaking \
  --from=<multisig_address> \
  --generate-only > unsignedTx.json

The file unsignedTx.json contains the unsigned transaction encoded in JSON. p1 can now sign the transaction with its own private key:

spendcli tx sign \
  unsignedTx.json \
  --multisig=<multisig_address> \
  --from=p1 \
  --output-document=p1signature.json 

Once the signature is generated, p1 transmits both unsignedTx.json and p1signature.json to p2 or p3, which in turn will generate their respective signature:

spendcli tx sign \
  unsignedTx.json \
  --multisig=<multisig_address> \
  --from=p2 \
  --output-document=p2signature.json

p1p2p3 is a 2-of-3 multisig key, therefore one additional signature is sufficient. Any the key holders can now generate the multisig transaction by combining the required signature files:

spendcli tx multisign \
  unsignedTx.json \
  p1p2p3 \
  p1signature.json p2signature.json > signedTx.json

The transaction can now be sent to the node:

spendcli tx broadcast signedTx.json

Shells Completion Scripts

Completion scripts for popular UNIX shell interpreters such as Bash and Zsh can be generated through the completion command, which is available for both spend and spendcli.

If you want to generate Bash completion scripts run the following command:

spend completion > spend_completion
spendcli completion > spendcli_completion

If you want to generate Zsh completion scripts run the following command:

spend completion --zsh > spend_completion
spendcli completion --zsh > spendcli_completion

::: tip Note On most UNIX systems, such scripts may be loaded in .bashrc or .bash_profile to enable Bash autocompletion:

echo '. spend_completion' >> ~/.bashrc
echo '. spendcli_completion' >> ~/.bashrc

Refer to the user's manual of your interpreter provided by your operating system for information on how to enable shell autocompletion. :::